Avaliação da fibrose miocárdica pela ressonância magnética cardíaca na doença valvar aórtica grave: validação de um algoritmo de quantificação e comparação com a histopatologia / Assessment of myocardial fibrosis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in severe aortic valve disease: validation of a quantitative algorithm and comparison with histopathology
Clerio Francisco de Azevedo Filho
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
Introduction: Severe aortic valve disease is characterized by a process of progressive accumulation of interstitial fibrosis in the myocardial tissue. It has been shown that the amount of interstitial myocardial fibrosis can play an important role in the transition from well-compensated hypertrophy to overt heart failure in the setting of chronic left ventricular mechanical overload typical of this condition. However, assessment of interstitial myocardial fibrosis has only been possible through histological analyses of myocardial fragments obtained from endomyocardial biopsies, which is a complex and invasive procedure and, therefore, with limited clinical applicability. Objectives: Determine whether delayedenhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for the non-invasive quantification of myocardial fibrosis when compared against histopathological analyses in patients with severe aortic valve disease. Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between the amount of myocardial fibrosis and important prognostic parameters, such as all-cause mortality and LV functional recovery after aortic valve replacement. Methods: Fifty-four patients scheduled to undergo aortic valve replacement surgery were enrolled between May 2001 and December 2003. Before surgery, all patients underwent cine and delayedenhancement MRI in a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Quantification of myocardial fibrosis by cardiac MRI was based on the assessment of the delayed-enhancement dataset using a novel semiautomatic algorithm. The regions of myocardial fibrosis were defined as the sum of pixels with signal intensity above a threshold value defined as: mean signal intensity of the myocardium + 2 standard deviations of mean signal intensity of a remote area + 2 standard deviations of mean signal intensity of air. During open-heart surgery, myectomy samples were acquired from the LV septum and later stained with picrosirius for interstitial myocardial fibrosis quantification. A second cardiac MRI study was performed 6 months after surgery to assess long-term changes in LV functional parameters, and all patients were followed for at least 24 months to evaluate survival after aortic valve replacement. Results: There was a good correlation between the values of myocardial fibrosis measured by MRI and those obtained by histopathological analyses (r=0.69; y=3.10x+13.0; p<0.0001). The amount of myocardial fibrosis, either by MRI or by histopathology, exhibited a significant inverse correlation with LV ejection fraction before surgery (r=-0.63 e -0.67 respectively; p<0.0001). Additionally, the amount of myocardial fibrosis displayed a significant inverse correlation with the degree of LV functional recovery after aortic valve replacement (r=-0.42, p=0.04 for histopathology; r=-0.47, p=0.02 for MRI). Most importantly, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses revealed that higher degrees of myocardial fibrosis accumulation were associated with worse survival 52±17 months after aortic valve replacement surgery (log-rank test: 2=6.32; p=0.01 for histopathology; 2=5.85; p=0.02 for MRI). Conclusions: Cardiac MRI allows for the non-invasive quantification of myocardial fibrosis with good accuracy when compared with histopathological analyses in patients with severe aortic valve disease. The degree of myocardial fibrosis accumulation is associated with impaired LV functional recovery and worse survival after aortic valve replacement surgery.
imagem por ressonância magnética aortic valve disease myocardial fibrosis prognosis função ventricular esquerda left ventricular function cardiac surgery fibrose miocárdica prognóstico histopatologia histopathology cirurgia cardíaca doença valvar aórtica magnetic resonance imaging