Avaliação da exposição ocupacional a praguicidas organofosforados em estufas de flores na região do Alto Tietê - São Paulo / Evaluation of occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides in greenhouses of flower in the Alto Tietê region, state of S. Paulo, Brazil
Camilla Gomes Colasso
DATA DE PUBLICAÇÃO
The state of São Paulo - Brazil, accounts for 70% of domestic production of flowers and ornamental plants. Currently, these crops occupy 7.5 thousand hectares and over 50% of this area is cultivated in greenhouses. This market has an average of 8.000 producers and generates around 200.000 jobs. Greenhouses are microcosms designed to provide environmental conditions suitable for plant growth. Infestation is controlled using pesticides that due to the closure and adjustment to the weather conditions can prolong and intensify the exposure to them. Some studies suggest that workers in greenhouses of flowers and ornamental plants are exposed to higher levels of pesticides during loading, dilution and application, as well as by continuous contact with flowers and ornamental plants, when compared to other workers who enter in contact with this class of compounds. The aim of the present was to know the work process, to survey the practices of health, hygiene and safety standards and locate possible sources of occupational exposure to pesticides in greenhouses of flowers in the Alto Tietê region (São Paulo state), and to optimize analytical methods for detection and quantification of organophosphate pesticides (dichlorvos, methyl parathion and methidathion) in patches of cotton and in XAD-2 sorbent tubes, with the aim of analyzing the occupational dermal and inhalation exposure. The evaluation process included the monitoring of the working day, interviews and questionnaires, and samples collected in greenhouses. The organophosphorus compounds were detected and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operated in electron impact ionization. The data show a high percentage of lack of appropriate health practices, hygiene and safety for pesticide use suggests that there is risk of exposure during handling, storage and disposal of them. The limits of quantification (LOQ) obtained were below 0.4 ng/mL and limits of detection (LOD) were below 0.1 ng/mL for all compounds. The method showed good linearity in the studied concentration (LOQ-500 ng/mL), with coefficient (r) greater than 0.99. The precision was evaluated by relative standard deviation and showed values below 15% for all compounds studied. After the methods are validated, the dermal and air sampling was performed and a great range of pesticide concentrations was found. So it is evident that this study is valuable for future analysis and guidance to workers about possible hazards and proper use for reducing exposure to these compounds.
avaliação qualitativa cromatografia gasosa/espectrometria de massas (gc-ms) estufas de flores exposição ocupacional dérmica e inalatória flowers greenhouses gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) occupational dermal and inhalation exposure occupational toxicology organofosforados organophosphates qualitative evaluation toxicologia ocupacional
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